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Concepts – Segment Size, Legitimate and False Matches

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Product Reviews Back to Features. Review More Purchases My Posts. We looked at this couch for a while before we bought it. The cushions were exactly what I was looking for. In terms of firmness, softness and comfort, I have not found another couch that is so balanced. We debated the color to get but ultimately went with the Slate gray. It adds a lot of warmth to the room and our entire family is really enjoying the look and feel. I only wish my living room was bigger than it is so I could have gotten the 4 piece sectional rather that the 3.

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Its time for Raymour to fasten the cushions to prevent constant slipping since they are not reversible. My 3 stars reflect my utter disappointed with the changing color of the microfiber. If your match does not match either parent, the match is a false positive, meaning it is not a legitimate match. The match is identical by chance IBC. One clue as to whether a match is IBC or IBD, even without your parents, is whether the person matches you and other close relatives on this same segment.

If not, then the match may be IBC. If the match also matches close relatives on this segment, then the match is very likely IBD. If a person triangulates with 2 or more relatives who descend from the same ancestor, then the match is identical by descent, and not identical by chance. This last example shows a false negative. The DNA of Person E had a read error at location 5, meaning that there are not 10 locations in a row that match. Legitimate matches will phase to your parents — meaning that you will match Person B on the same amount of a specific segment, or a smaller portion of that segment, as one of your parents.

False matches mean that you match the person, but neither of your parents matches that person, meaning that the segment in question is identical by chance, not by descent. Comparing your matches to both of your parents is the easiest litmus paper test of whether your matches are legitimate or not.

Of course, the caveat is that you must have both of your parents available to fully phase your results. Very small segments, say at 1cM, are very likely to match randomly, because they are so small. As a rule of thumb, the larger the matching segment as measured in cM, with more SNPs in that segment:. Just in case we forget sometimes, identifying ancestors IS the purpose of genetic genealogy, although it seems like we sometimes get all geeked out by the science itself and process of matching!

In our example, we have a non-endogamous female child so they inherit an X chromosome from both parents whose matches are being compared to her parents. Because I have the ability to phase these matches against both parents, I wanted to see how many of the matches in each category were indeed legitimate matches and how many were false positives, meaning identical by chance. Step one is downloading the chromosome browser matches for all 3 individuals, the child and both parents. After I had all three files in one spreadsheet, I sorted the columns by segment size and removed the segments below 3cM.

My resulting spreadsheet looked like this. Sorting in the order prescribed provides you with the matches to each person in chromosome and segment order, facilitating easy OK, relatively easy visual comparison for matching segments. Do this only for the child, or the white non-colored rows. This looks like your typical match for one person, in this case, Cecelia. The child matches Cecelia on two segments that also match the mother, on chromosome 20 and the X chromosome.

Those matching segments are boxed in black. This segment still counts as a match though, because on the majority of the segment, Chad does match both the child and the mother. In other words, pieces got shaved off of both ends of this segment when the child was inheriting from her mother.

Sometimes, the child and the parent will both match the same person, but there are no common segments. In this case, the child matches Don on 5 segments, including a reasonably large segment on chromosome 9, but there are no matches between Don and either parent.

However, in this case, since Family Tree DNA does report matches down to 1cM, it would have to be an awfully large read error for that to occur. Family Tree DNA does have quality control standards in place and each file must pass the quality threshold to be put into the matching data base.

So, in this case, I doubt that the problem is a false negative. This split match is very interesting. However, the number of SNPs adds up to the same, and the number of cM is close.

If the segments broken apart were smaller, under the match threshold, and there were no other higher matches on other segments, this match would not be shown and would fall into the False Negative category.

Harrold is a family surname and Mr. So not a legitimate match, no matter how much you want it to be! This technically is a match, because part of the DNA that Daryl matches between Mom and the child does overlap, from ,, to ,, How did our parental phasing turn out?

What did we learn? How many segments matched both the child and a parent, and how many were false matches? A non-match means a false match. The bracket just beneath that, At 3 cM and 4 cM few matches phase to the parents, but some do, and could potentially be useful in groups of people descended from a known common ancestor and in conjunction with larger matches on other segments.

The smaller the segment, the less confidence we can have based on that segment alone, at least below cM. If I made errors, they were likely counting too many as NON-matches, and not the reverse, meaning I failed to visually identify matches.

I hope that other people in non-endogamous populations will do the same type of double parent phasing and report on their results in the same type of format. This experiment took about 2 days. If you can phase your matches to either or both of your parents, absolutely, do. At least, not below about 15 cM. Whether you can phase against your parent or not, this exercise should help you analyze your segment matches with an eye towards determining whether or not they are valid, and what different kinds of matches mean to your genealogy.

If nothing else, at least we can quantify the relatively likelihood, based on the size of the matching segment, in a non-endogamous population, a match would match a parent, if we had one to match against, meaning that they are a legitimate match.

Did you get all that? Thank you so much for this analysis. Roberta — really great example, thanks very much, especially for explaining how long it took you to do this little wow did I say little???

At least now I have a target for how fast I should be able to complete this after about 10 years of practice. Also valuable information regarding what is available from other vendors. This is my paternal aunt of course. No because your aunt and your father inherited some of the same, but some different parts of your grandparents DNA.

At Family Tree DNA, if you connect those two siblings of your parent, they will phase your matches against them for you and then designate the matches on your paternal side with a little blue male icon. I know many Ancestry users may not realize that could be an option for them. And hopefully it will save them money for re-testing at another company. Has gedmatch changed this as I went into gedmatch and ran the phasing tool.

Then I ran the Tier 1 — Matching Segment Search and it returned for me, for my father and matches for my mother? Maybe because the sample was from an elderly person such as my father 83 years old at the time , or the sample was extracted just after eating or some other uncontrolled environmental condition?

A read error can be caused by a number of things. Most often either contamination or a poor scrape in the first place. But everyone has some read errors. Vendors have routines to compensate for smaller ones. Hi My sister and I both have ftdna accounts and we match, my question is , we both share matches with others and then she matches others that I do not match.

Does the joint matching that we have of others make it clearer that they are associated with us more so than my sister matches without me. Note- I have ignored all 4th and 5th cousins , only speaking about 3rd cousins or lower. The joint matching indicates that the person matches you and your sister on a segment of DNA that you both inherited from one of your parents.

There are occasions where you could be still matching by chance. You and your sister inheriting the same DNA from your parents and that person matching you both by chance. My matches are many, with no autosomal tests done of parents. Should I take that to mean they are likely matches by chance as you have described in your article? I have over 15, matches including 8th cousins on Ancestry alone. Endogamy makes it much more difficult. But eventually, more than one person is going to match by chance too.

Thank you so much, that cleared up some confusion. Can we talk more about endogamy soon? My grandmother was the first generation to breed outside of her Sicilian village which seems to have continued a couple of generations after immigrating to Chicago, limiting the pool further … And her parents were 1st cousins on one side, 2nd cousins 1x removed on the other.

I will need more practice. Thank you so much for this article! I read the whole article, so forgive me for being a bit tired and asking this: Let us say taht i have a match at Ancestry involving only 1 segment: Thanks again for this enlightening article! I often have to reread things.

I was just wondering about what is considered a match. I matched 3 others on chromosome 15 that emailed me last week and they all match me for She was Ann Combs. And I have not sort of similar clustering of matches on other chromosomes. The Combs I descend from both had daughters that married Smiths that were brothers very early in the chain. So now, my assumptions that 7 — 14 cM matches would be 3th Great Grandparents is wrong, although I do have a proven 9.

I did see that about years ago they did have a Hensley marry into their tree but otherwise no recent ancestors in common. Why is this Combs chromosome 15 so stable? That seems to make these tests very unreliable. Your Combs triangulated match is quite stable. This just goes to show that DNA transmission truly is the luck of the draw. Some DNA gets passed intact for generations and some gets lost entirely.

Great job, Roberta, in organizing and teaching this lesson on inheritance and phasing. I have missed the opportunity to test my parents and grandparents, so I am envious of those who can use phasing as a tool. I have a question for you on genetic linkage, regarding meiotic crossover or other forms of recombination, a question that is a particular interest of mine.

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